A Look at Nursing Facility Characteristics Between 2015 and 2023


As of mid-December 2023, over 170,000 people dwelling in nursing amenities have died because of COVID-19, highlighting long-standing problems in nursing amenities. In line with the high mortality price amongst citizens and long-standing staffing shortages in nursing amenities, the Facilities for Medicare and Medicaid Services and products (CMS) launched a highly-anticipated proposed rule previous this 12 months that might create new necessities for staffing ranges in nursing amenities, which offer clinical and private care services and products for just about 1.2 million American citizens. KFF analysis reveals that 19% of amenities these days meet the desired choice of hours for registered nurses and nurse aides, with a lot decrease charges amongst for-profit amenities (10%) in comparison with non-profit and executive amenities (40%). Underneath the proposed rule, amenities would have a number of years yet to come into compliance and would possibly qualify for hardship exemptions.

This knowledge word examines the traits of nursing amenities and the folk dwelling in them with information from Nursing House Evaluate, a publicly to be had dataset that gives a snapshot of knowledge on high quality of care in each and every nursing facility, and CASPER (Certification and Survey Supplier Enhanced Studies), a dataset that incorporates detailed metrics accrued by means of surveyors throughout nursing facility inspections. State-level data also are to be had on State Well being Details, KFF’s information repository with downloadable well being signs. Key takeaways come with:

  • The choice of nursing amenities dropped by means of 4% between 2015 and 2023, and the choice of nursing facility citizens dropped by means of 12%.
  • Over that very same duration, the typical choice of hours of nursing care that citizens obtain in step with day has declined by means of 9% (from 4.13 to a few.77), despite the generally increasing acuity levels of nursing facility citizens.
  • The typical choice of deficiencies and the percentage of amenities with severe deficiencies has higher through the years, which would possibly in part be the results of lowering staffing ranges. Between 2015 and 2023, the percentage of amenities with a significant deficiency higher from 17% to 26%.

Determine 1: The Selection of Other people Residing in Nursing Amenities & Hours of Care That Each and every Individual Receives Is Decrease Than in 2015

The choice of nursing amenities licensed by means of CMS reduced by means of 4% between July 2015 and July 2023, losing from 15,648 amenities in 2015 to fifteen,003 amenities in 2023 (Determine 2). With a view to obtain fee beneath the Medicare and/or Medicaid systems, nursing amenities are required to apply sure regulations and be licensed by means of CMS. The reduced choice of nursing amenities displays the web trade within the choice of licensed amenities after accounting for newly-certified amenities and amenities which can be now not licensed, together with amenities that closed.

Between 2015 and 2023, the choice of citizens dwelling in nursing amenities reduced by means of 12%, from 1.37 million in July 2015 to roughly 1.2 million in July 2023 (Determine 2). Lowering resident counts mirror longer-term tendencies as other folks increasingly more decide to obtain care in home and community-based settings (HCBS) over institutional settings, and the higher availability of HCBS attributable to the Perfect Court docket’s Olmstead decision, which dominated that individuals with disabilities are to be served in probably the most built-in environment this is suitable. COVID-19 exacerbated the lower in nursing facility citizens—partly as a result of nursing facility citizens and team of workers incurred such a lot of deaths during the pandemic.

Between July 2015 and July 2023, the typical hours of care that nursing facility citizens gained declined by means of 9%, from 4.13 hours to a few.77 hours (Determine 3). The lower used to be pushed by means of a 21% decline in registered nurse (RN) hours and a ten% decline in nurse aide hours. Approved sensible nurse (LPN) hours higher by means of 7% on this similar time frame. The decline happened over all of the duration however the choice of hours of care in step with resident higher in short within the 12 months 2021. The quite upper staffing hours in 2021 mirrored the truth that the choice of citizens declined extra briefly than the choice of team of workers hours did between 2020 and 2021. In 2021, the choice of staffing hours used to be 12% less than in 2020 (information now not proven). Those decrease staffing ranges within the remaining a number of years align with data as of October 2023 appearing that the choice of employees hired at long-term care amenities continues to stay beneath pre-pandemic ranges.

The proposed new staffing rule proposes at least 0.55 RN and a pair of.45 nurse aide hours in step with resident day and does now not come with proposed minimums for LPNs. This may be slightly less than the typical hours in step with resident day in 2023 for each RNs and nurse aides. See Field 1 for an outline of direct care team of workers operating in nursing amenities.

Registered Nurse (RN): Registered nurses (RNs) are answerable for the overall supply of care to the citizens and assess wishes of nursing facility citizens. RNs are most often required to have between two and 6 years of training.

Approved Sensible Nurse (LPN) and Approved Vocational Nurse (LVN): LPNs/LVNs supply care under the direction of an RN. In combination, RNs and LPNs/LVNs make sure that each and every resident’s plan of care is being adopted and their wishes are being met. LPNs/LVNs typically have twelve months of coaching.

Qualified Nurse Aides/Assistants (CNAs): CNAs paintings beneath the path of an authorized nurse to help citizens with actions of day-to-day dwelling similar to consuming, bathing, dressing, helping with strolling/workout, and the usage of the toilet. All CNAs should have finished a nurse aide coaching and competency analysis program inside of 4 months in their employment. They should additionally pursue proceeding training each and every 12 months.

Each the typical choice of deficiencies and the percentage of amenities with severe deficiencies has higher through the years, which would possibly mirror decrease staffing ranges (Determine 4, Field 2). Between 2015 and 2023, the typical depend of deficiencies higher from 6.8 to eight.9, an build up of 31%. Moreover, the percentage of amenities reporting a significant deficiency higher from 17% to 26%. The new Nursing House Staffing Learn about report by means of Abt Mates discovered that better-staffed nursing properties are most often cited for fewer deficiencies or violations of federal rules, suggesting there is also a courting between the rise in deficiencies and the lower in staffing ranges over the similar time frame. The Biden Management asked higher investment within the president’s budget for survey and certification of nursing amenities in FY 2024, mentioning that “CMS has observed an build up within the general choice of nursing house court cases since 2015, requiring further survey assets throughout a time when enacted investment has usually been held consistent.”

Nursing amenities obtain deficiencies after they fail to satisfy the requirements essential to obtain federal investment. Deficiencies are frequently given for issues which could have uncomfortable side effects at the well being and protection of citizens. Usually cited deficiencies come with a failure to supply essential care, failure to file abuse or forget, and violation of an infection regulate necessities. Each and every of those classes has explicit rules that state surveyors evaluate to resolve whether or not or now not amenities have met the factors.

Deficiencies are characterised by means of their point of severity: Deficiencies for “exact hurt” or “fast jeopardy” are probably the most critical and are grouped in combination beneath the time period, “severe deficiencies.” CMS defines “exact hurt” as a “deficiency that ends up in a unfavourable result that has negatively affected the resident’s talent to reach the person’s very best purposeful standing.” “Quick jeopardy” is outlined as a deficiency that “has brought about (or is more likely to motive) severe damage, hurt, impairment, or dying to a resident receiving care within the nursing facility.”

Some key nursing facility traits, such because the share of residents by primary payer and share of facilities by ownership type stayed quite strong through the years (Determine 5). As of July 2023, Medicaid used to be the main payer for 62% of nursing facility citizens; Medicare for 13% of citizens; and the rest 25% of citizens had every other number one payer (ex. non-public insurance coverage, out-of-pocket, and so on.) (Determine 5). Medicare supplies as much as 100 days of professional nursing facility care beneath explicit instances, however the Medicare receive advantages is regarded as “post-acute” care and usually now not to be had for other folks desiring nursing facility services and products on an ongoing foundation. In a similar fashion, the percentage of amenities by means of form of proprietor has now not modified particularly additional time. As of July 2023, 71% of amenities have been for-profit, 22% have been non-profit, and six% have been executive owned (Determine 5).

The Biden Management launched two fresh proposed laws supposed to deal with the LTSS team of workers and get right of entry to to services and products. To handle team of workers shortages in nursing amenities, the Management proposed a rule that might create new staffing requirements in nursing facilities, require state Medicaid businesses to file at the % of Medicaid bills for institutional long-term services and products and helps (LTSS) which can be spent on repayment for direct care employees and strengthen team of workers, and supply investment for people to go into careers in nursing amenities. The Management additionally launched a proposed rule geared toward making sure get right of entry to to Medicaid services and products, which incorporated a number of notable provisions aimed particularly at LTSS supplied in other folks’s properties and the neighborhood. For sure LTSS, states can be required to file fee charges, reveal that fee charges are “good enough” to give you the point of services and products in enrollees’ personalised care plans, and to verify no less than 85% of Medicaid bills are handed thru to employee repayment.

The Biden management additionally finalized a rule in November 2023 requiring amenities to file non-public fairness possession. Nursing house possession has drawn consideration in recent times as non-public fairness possession of amenities has develop into extra commonplace. There were reports of personal fairness companies buying nursing amenities and converting operations to extend earnings, leading to lower-quality care. Recently available data don’t reliably establish whether or not amenities are owned by means of a personal fairness corporate, although the GAO estimates that about 5% of nursing amenities had non-public fairness possession in 2022. The brand new rule calls for nursing properties enrolled in Medicare or Medicaid to divulge detailed knowledge referring to their homeowners, operators, and control, together with:

  • Somebody who workout routines any monetary regulate over the power;
  • Somebody who rentals or subleases belongings to the power, together with any person who owns 5% or extra of the full price of the valuables;
  • Somebody who supplies administrative services and products, scientific consulting services and products, accounting or monetary services and products, insurance policies or procedures on operations, or money control services and products for the amenities; and
  • Whether or not any of the proudly owning or managing entities are a personal fairness corporate or actual property funding believe, which the general rule additionally defines.

Whilst there’s plentiful proof that upper ranges of staffing are related to higher high quality and less deficiencies in care, there are ongoing questions on how such care shall be financed and whether or not there are enough employees to satisfy the desires of an ageing inhabitants, in nursing amenities and in different settings. Along with federal motion, many states have followed common fee price will increase for nursing amenities and HCBS suppliers with the function of boosting staffing ranges as reported to KFF in a 2023 survey; then again, employment levels within the LTSS sector have been nonetheless 10% beneath pre-pandemic ranges in October 2023. Immigrants may assist fill some positions however a backlog of inexperienced card petitions induced the State Division to cutoff eligibility for any person who implemented after June 1, 2022. There are issues that the freeze on inexperienced card petitions will additional exacerbate nursing shortages throughout each well being and long-term care sectors. Because the primary payer of LTSS, power to additional build up staffing and lift repayment charges would possibly fall disproportionately to Medicaid the place financing is shared between states and federal executive.



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